Numerous studies have been conducted on teaching and assessing transversal competencies in different countries. Studies have shown the methods teachers often use, such as a combination of traditional and modern teaching and learning methods, cooperative learning, project-based teaching, linking learning with real-life situations or experiential learning, and using technology (Dincă, 2015; Larraz, Vázquez, & Liesa, 2017; Saavedra & Opfer, 2012; Terzieva, Luppi, & Traina, 2015; UNICEF, 2019). Studies on transversal competencies assessment have also been carried out, emphasizing challenges and recommendations for formative and skills-based assessment (Care et al., 2019; Cimatti, 2016; Economou, 2018; Lai & Viering, 2012). Other methods have also been mentioned, such as using questionnaires, peer assessments, teacher evaluations, and profile assessments through interviews and observations (Cimatti, 2016; DUŢă, 2015; Lima et al., 2015). Employing technology has also been mentioned in ePortfolios and digital formative assessments (Cimatti, 2016; Swathi et al., 2020; Reynolds et al., 2020).
In this study, the framework of transversal competencies is aligned with 21st-century skills, which comprise skills, abilities, and learning dispositions identified by educators, business leaders, academics, and governmental agencies. Students must master these skills in preparation for a rapidly changing 21st-century digital society and workplace. The collection includes three domains: Learning and Innovation, Digital Literacy, and Career and Life (P21, 2019). The study was conducted by a research team from VNIES from April 2021 to April 2022. This project aims to understand the status of transversal competency education in Vietnam, including current trends, highlights, and challenges in teaching and assessing these skills in primary schools. Some recommendations will be proposed to strengthen transversal competence education, improving the quality of education to meet the requirements of accelerated changes in the era of the fourth industrial revolution and globalization.